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Dysplasia clinical trials at UC Cancer

6 research studies open to eligible people

Showing trials for
  • A Cohort Study of the Intestinal Microbiota of Premature Infants

    open to all eligible people

    Premature infants are at risk for a variety of diseases, the investigators would like to learn more about why some premature babies are at higher risk and some are protected from these diseases. Scientists at UC Davis and other universities have developed new ways to measure the bacteria and a large number of small molecules in specimens of infant blood, urine, stomach fluid and poop and in mother's milk. These discoveries allow us to consider questions that were impossible to answer before these new techniques were developed. One such question is whether the bacteria in the poop of a premature baby can help us predict the baby's risk for developing infection or a common and serious disease of premature infants called necrotizing enterocolitis. A second question is whether the DNA of a premature baby (obtained from saliva with a q-tip) can predict higher risk for diseases of premature babies.

    at UC Davis

  • A Study of Renal Anhydramnios Fetal Therapy (repeated infusions of replacement amniotic fluid into the womb)

    open to eligible females ages 18-60

    Early pregnancy renal anhydramnios or EPRA is a condition where a pregnant woman does not have any amniotic fluid around her fetus because of a problem with the fetus's kidneys. This condition is thought to be fatal once the fetus is born because of inadequate lung growth. The Renal Anhydramnios Fetal Therapy (RAFT) Trial offers eligible pregnant women with a diagnosis of EPRA an experimental therapy of repeated or serial "amnioinfusions" of fluid into the womb. An amnioinfusion involves placing a small needle through the pregnant woman's skin into the womb next to the fetus. Warm sterile fluid with balanced electrolytes and antibiotics is then slowly infused into amniotic space inside the womb. The aim is to help the fetus's lungs grow enough so he or she can survive after birth. These amnioinfusions will be carried out by an expert in fetal interventions at a RAFT center. There is a significant risk of early rupture of membranes and early delivery in subjects who receive amnioinfusions, and any potential trial participants will be counseled about these risks before they decide whether to join the trial. Any eligible patients who, after counseling, elect to terminate the pregnancy will not be eligible to participate in the trial. All eligible patients who choose to join the RAFT trial will be able to choose their assignment into one of two arms of the study: (1) to receive serial amnioinfusions (2) to not receive amnioinfusions but receive monitoring for the remainder of the pregnancy at the RAFT center. Thus, assignment of patients to study arm will not be random, but will be decided by the participant. Fetuses who do survive after birth will require intensive medical management for kidney failure including placement of a dialysis catheter and dialysis therapy with the eventual need for a kidney transplant. Treatment for lung disease secondary to abnormal lung development may also be required. The study will follow babies and their families until non-survival or transplant.

    at UCSF

  • Normative Radiographic Parameters and Growth Curve of Hips Less Than Six Weeks of Gestational Age Using Ultrasound

    open to all eligible people

    This study aims to collect normative population data on the ultrasound radiographic parameters used to evaluate hip dysplasia in infants between 32 and 46 weeks of gestational age. This data would be utilized to develop a growth chart with standard deviations for this cohort that would be beneficial in the appropriate treatment of suspected hip dysplasia.

    at UCSF

  • Peri-operative Use of a Pain Injection in Pediatric Patients With Cerebral Palsy

    open to eligible people ages up to 18 years

    Pain management in pediatric patients presents a difficult challenge. Unlike adults, pediatric patients often cannot communicate their pain management needs clearly. Adequate pain control after surgery is pivotal for these patients in order to prevent negative physiologic and psychologic complications and to improve surgical outcomes. There is an ongoing shift away from the use of opioids in the post-operative setting due to both their negative side effects and their high potential for dependence and abuse. A variety of new techniques of multimodal pain management have been developed and utilized in elective orthopaedic procedures. Injection of local anesthetics is becoming a widely popular technique utilized in adult arthroplasty. This technique blocks pain directly at the site of injection, and therefore can improve post-operative pain while minimizing side effects. Evidence has demonstrated this technique to be both safe and effective, resulting in reduced opioid consumption post-operatively. However, this technique has not been studied for use in pediatric patients, a population in which reduced narcotic use is equally, if not more important than in adult patients. This study is a prospective, randomized controlled trial with 2 parallel arms. The goal of this study is to assess the efficacy of a surgical-site pain injection administered in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy undergoing major hip surgery. Patients who are scheduled to undergo surgery will be randomized to either intervention (injection of a pain cocktail) or placebo (injection of normal saline). The pain cocktail includes three medications: ropivacaine (a local anesthetic), ketorolac (an anti-inflammatory medication), and epinephrine (a medication to constrict blood vessels and increase the duration of action of any co-administered medications). A surgeon who is blinded to treatment group will administer the injection at the end of the procedure, prior to the patient waking from anesthesia. The injection is in addition to our typical multi-modal pain control protocol, which includes epidural anesthesia, acetaminophen, anti-inflammatories, oral narcotics and anti-spasmodic agents. Patients will then be monitored post-operatively and pain medication consumption (both while in the hospital post-operatively and for the first two weeks following discharge), patient-reported and/or nurse-recorded pain scores, length of hospital stay, and adverse effects will be recorded. At the first post-operative visit, patients' parents will be asked to complete a survey designed to assess parent satisfaction with their child's pain management after surgery. Patients, parents, and surgeons will be blinded to treatment group allocation. Data will be collected while the patient is in the hospital, after surgery (average duration 3-4 days), and at the first post-operative visit two to three weeks after surgery.

    at UCLA

  • Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Safety Profile of Understudied Drugs Administered to Children Per Standard of Care (POPS)

    open to eligible people ages up to 20 years

    The study investigators are interested in learning more about how drugs, that are given to children by their health care provider, act in the bodies of children and young adults in hopes to find the most safe and effective dose for children. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the PK of understudied drugs currently being administered to children per SOC as prescribed by their treating provider.

    at UCLA

  • Use of a Tonometer to Identify Epileptogenic Lesions During Pediatric Epilepsy Surgery

    open to all eligible people

    Refractory epilepsy, meaning epilepsy that no longer responds to medication, is a common neurosurgical indication in children. In such cases, surgery is the treatment of choice. Complete resection of affected brain tissue is associated with highest probability of seizure freedom. However, epileptogenic brain tissue is visually identical to normal brain tissue, complicating complete resection. Modern investigative methods are of limited use. An important subjective assessment during surgery is that affected brain tissue feels stiffer, however there is presently no way to determine this without committing to resecting the affected area. It is hypothesized that intra-operative use of a tonometer (Diaton) will identify abnormal brain tissue stiffness in affected brain relative to normal brain. This will help identify stiffer brain regions without having to resect them. The objective is to determine if intra-operative use of a tonometer to measure brain tissue stiffness will offer additional precision in identifying epileptogenic lesions. In participants with refractory epilepsy, various locations on the cerebral cortex will be identified using standard pre-operative investigations like magnetic resonance imagin (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). These are areas of presumed normal and abnormal brain where the tonometer will be used during surgery to measure brain tissue stiffness. Brain tissue stiffness measurements will then be compared with results of routine pre-operative and intra-operative tests. Such comparisons will help determine if and to what extent intra-operative brain tissue stiffness measurements correlate with other tests and help identify epileptogenic brain tissue. 24 participants have already undergone intra-operative brain tonometry. Results in these participants are encouraging: abnormally high brain tissue stiffness measurements have consistently been identified and significantly associated with abnormal brain tissue. If the tonometer adequately identifies epileptogenic brain tissue through brain tissue stiffness measurements, it is possible that resection of identified tissue could lead to better post-operative outcomes, lowering seizure recurrences and neurological deficits.

    at UCLA

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